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First Aid

Artificial respiration of resuscitation Bone, broken or dislocated Burns Electric shock Foreign bodies in the eye Poisoning
Choking Bleeding Scalds S Shock Foreign bodies in nose or ears @

Artificial respiration of resuscitation

If a person has ceased to breath, immediately place him on his back, on a firm surface if possible, and press the top of head backwards so as to extend the head. Pull the chin forwards to make a clear airway. If patient is still not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately. Time saves lives. To do this, open your mouth and take a deep breath. Pinch the patient's nostrils with your fingers, and then seal his mouth with your lips (keep the head held back all the time). Blow into the patient's mouth until the chest rises, then remove your mouth and watch his chest deflate. Repeat this operation as long as is necessary at normal breath rate, but give the first four blows as rapidly as possible.



Direct pressure on an open, clean wound will usually control the bleeding. This can be done by pressure by the fingers or hand, but if readily available use a sterile dressing with an adequate pad, and bandage firmly in possition. A tourniquet should never be used.

tourniquet - Bandage for arresting bleeding by compression, tightened by twisting a rigid bar put through it; surgical instrument usually with pad and screw, for same purpose.


Bone, broken or dislocated

Send for a doctor at once and do not attempt to move this limb.



If a limb is affected, immerse the part immediately in cold water to relieve the pain. Then cover the part (including any burn clothing) with a dry sterile dressing or freshly laundered material such as a tea cloth. If burns are severe, treat for shock and get medical aid as quickly as possible. Do not use oilments or oil dressings.



This is usually caused by food, or some foreign body, getting into the wind-pipe and can often be cured by getting the patient bend over and then thumping with the flat of the hand between the shoulder blades. A small child can be held upside down and thumped. If this does not work, tickle the back of the throat with the finger-tips in an attempt to make the patient cough or vomit. If neither method succeeds get medical help at once.

Electric shock

If the patient is still in contact with electrical equipment, and you can not switch off the electricity, do not touch him umless protected by rubber soles or rubber gloves. Apply artificial respiration and treat for burns and shock as necessary.


Foreign bodies in the eye

Lifting the upper eyelid over the lower will often bring the foreign body on to the lower lid from which it can then be removed, or making the eyes water by rubbing the other eye or blowing the nose will sometimes help. If the object is clearly visible, the torn and moistened edge of a piece of soft paper can be used to remove it. Never use tweezers and rever rub the injured eye. If the object appears to be embedded in the eyeball leave it for the doctor to remove.

tweezers ( - small pincer-like instrument for taking up small object, pluking out hairs, etc.


Foreign bodies in nose or ears

Unless the foreign body is very obvious and can easily be gripped with fingers and thumb, leave this too for the doctor to remove. It is too easy to push the object further in your effort to remove it and this can be dangerous.


If someone is thought to have swallowed poison, send for medical help at once, even if no effects have appeared. Have the poison container ready to show the doctor. Corrosive Gk , acid or alkaline P poison such as cresote , ammonia , causitc soda, strong carbolic һ and oxalic and other acids will burn or stain the lips and mouth. Give water at once, but not an emetic RR .

If the poison is know to be an acid such as oxalic, nitric, or sulphuric acid, rinse the mouth with an alkali P such as magnesia mQ , chalk հ and water, whiting and water or even plaster from the ceiling.

If the poison is an alkali, such as ammonia or caustic soda, giving a acid drink such as vinegar L or lemon juice in water. Slow pulse, pallor, sleepiness and, in some cases, pin-point pupils, are symptoms of an overdose of narcotics ¾K such as sleeping tablets. Give emetic RR and try to keep patient awake.

For gas poisoning give the patient fresh air, artificial respiration and warmth and send for the doctor.

Scalds S

Treat as burns



Serious burns or injury always cause shock. The patient is pale, his skin cold and clammy, his breathing quick and irregular and his pulse fast. He should be lying down with head low and hips and legs raised a little. Keep him warm and, if he is conscious, give him a warm sweet drink - but no stimulants E . Keep him quiet and reassure him. Shock can also occur after quite minor accidents.